Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm môn học Tiếng Anh 11

Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm môn học Tiếng Anh 11

1. SENTENCE ELEMENTS

1.1. SUBJECT (S):

1.1.1 Definition: Gender to be the action doer or described or mentioned.

 (là chủ thể của hành động hay đối tượng được miêu tả).

1.1.2Classification:

a. Subject pronouns: (đại từ nhân xưng chủ ngữ)

 First Person Second Person Third Person

Singular form I You He, She, It

Plural form We You They

 eg. He went abroad to study medicine.

They were killed in an accident.

b. Nouns, or noun phrases:

eg. Love is a stage of feeling and can’t be recognized by senses.

 Gain and loss go together.

c. Gerunds:

eg. Fishing is his favourite pastime.

Getting good marks is not always difficult.

d. Clauses:

eg. What we really wish is to be at the cinema.

All she can say is that he is a liar.

 

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MỤC LỤC
Phần 
Trang 
PHẦN MỞ ĐẦU	
 I. Lý do chọn chuyên đề
1
 II. Mục đích
1
 III. Đối tượng nghiên cứu
1
 IV. Phạm vi nghiên cứu
1
 V. Cơ sở nghiên cứu
1
PHẦN NỘI DUNG
Các thành tố của câu
2-4
2. Các loại cấu trúc câu
4-10
3. Bài tập thực hành phân tích thành tố của câu.
5-6
4. Các ví dụ minh họa
7-15
5. Bài tập áp dụng
6. Kết quả
16
PHẦN KẾT LUẬN
17
PHẦN NỘI DUNG
I. Nội dung
1. Thành phần của câu
2. Các loại cấu trúc câu
3. Bài tập thực hành phân tích thành phần của câu. 
4. Các ví dụ minh họa
5. Kết quả
1. SENTENCE ELEMENTS
1.1. SUBJECT (S):
1.1.1 Definition: Gender to be the action doer or described or mentioned. 
 (là chủ thể của hành động hay đối tượng được miêu tả).
1.1.2Classification:
Subject pronouns: (đại từ nhân xưng chủ ngữ)
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
Singular form
I
You
He, She, It
Plural form
We
You
They
 eg. He went abroad to study medicine. 
They were killed in an accident.
Nouns, or noun phrases: 
eg. 	Love is a stage of feeling and can’t be recognized by senses.
 	Gain and loss go together.
Gerunds: 
eg. 	Fishing is his favourite pastime. 
Getting good marks is not always difficult.
Clauses: 
eg. 	What we really wish is to be at the cinema. 
All she can say is that he is a liar.
COMPLEMENTS (C):
1.2.1 Definition: Element to be described or mentioned usually follows the verb to be or link verbs. (là thành tố hoàn thành câu, thường theo sau “to be” hoặc các link verbs).
Classification:
Nouns, or noun phrases: 
eg. 	She is a kind hearted lady. 
They became the new employees.
Gerunds: 
eg. 	Her hobby is singing.
Verbs: 
eg. 	My dream is to become a teacher.
Clauses: 
eg. 	A full apology is what the boss wants now.
A smile is all he could do and what he should do.
Notes: Có 2 loại bổ ngữ; bổ ngữ của chủ ngữ (Cs) – She was exhausted – và bổ ngữ của tân ngữ (Co) – The long walk made us exhausted.
OBJECTS (O):
1.3.1 Definition: Gender to be described or mentioned usually follows ordinary verbs to show the direct or indirect goals that the verbs aim at. (là thành tố hoàn thành câu, thường theo sau động từ thường chỉ hướng hay đối tượng của động từ).
Classification:
Object pronouns: (đại từ nhân xưng tân ngữ)
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
Singular form
Me
you
him, her, it
Plural form
Us
you
Them
 eg. 	We met him yesterday. 
She made us a big cake.
Nouns, or noun phrases: 
eg. 	She gave me a blank look. 
We sent endless letters to the manager.
Gerunds: 
eg. 	The man loved telling funny stories. 
She was interested in going shopping on Sundays.
Verbs: 
eg. 	Jack wished to become an astronaut. 
Kelvin loves to do the crosswords.
Clauses: 
eg. 	We know how we should solve the problem. 
She asked why we didn’t arrive on time.
Notes: Có 2 loại bổ ngữ; bổ ngữ của chủ ngữ (Cs) – She was exhausted – và bổ ngữ của tân ngữ (Co) – The long walk made us exhausted.
ADVERBIALS (A):
1.4.1 Definition: Element to be used to denote the stages, manner, methods, or to indicate time, places, purposes, or others. (được dùng để miêu tả trạng thái, cách thức, phương pháp, mức độ, hay dùng để chỉ thời gian, nơi chốn, mục đích, của hành động).
1.4.2 Classification:
Adverbs: 
eg. 	We often go to work by bus. 
She danced marvelously.
Adverbials: 
eg. 	In the past, people used to live in a large family.
Clauses: 
eg. 	When we came, they were fighting.
Billy tried hard in order that he could pass the exam.
VERBS (V):
Definition: To denote action, state, and be the most important part of sentences.
1.5.2 Classification: phân loại động từ
a. Auxiliary verbs: động từ trợ
- Primary auxiliary verbs: be/ have/ do 
(These verbs can either be auxiliaries or lexical verbs)
- Modal verbs: can/ could/ may/ might/ must/ have to + base form/ will/ would/ shall/ should/ be going to + base form/ used to + base form/ ought to + base form/ (These are sometimes functional verbs)
b. Lexical verbs: động từ mang nghĩa
- Intensive verbs: verbs that show the state 
eg. She feels tired.
 	He is selfish
- Extensive verbs: verbs that show the affection 
eg. He gets angry.
 They are helpful.
- Intransitive verbs: verbs that can function as verb phrases and make sentences meaningful without any complementation. 
e.g. She cried (noisily). 
 It rains/ is raining (hard/ heavily/ cats and dogs)
- Transitive verbs: verbs that need complementation.
+ Mono-transitive verbs: verbs that followed by one object (S+V+O).
 e.g. She bought flowers. 
Ann met her fiance’ yesterday.
+ Di-transitive verbs: verbs that followed by both direct and indirect objects. (S+V+O+O)
 e.g. She bought me some sweets. (= She bought some sweets for me)
 	 They gave me a big cake. (=They gave a big cake to me)
+ Complex transitive verbs: follow the form “S + V + O + Co”
 e.g. He made me angry. 
 The female film star drove him mad.
2. TYPES OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE:
Có 7 cấu trúc câu cơ bản
1
S + V-intrans
They laugh/ The wind is blowing.
2
S + V-monotrans + O
He did his homework/ Harley carried an umbrella.
3
S + V-in/ extensive + Cs
He became famous/ They are nearly exhausted.
4
S + V-intrans + A
He went abroad/ She arrives late.
5
S + V-ditrans + O + O
She buys me presents/ That brings my father success. 
6
S + V-complex trans + O + C
The story made me bored/ You drive me mad.
7
S + V-intrans + A + A/ others
She went to school early/ He came to the park in the early morning.
3. PRACTISE EXERCISES
3.1. Phân tích thành phần các câu sau đây.
1. They built this church in 1973. 
2. Do they teach English in your school?
3. Nobody believes his story. 
4. People say he is very rich. 
5. He made me clean all the plates last night.
6. My parents are very proud of my good marks.
7. You have made the wall dirty, pupils.
8. My brother gave me a new mobile phone on my birthday. 
9. Be quiet! my son is sleeping. 
10. Peter stayed up late last night. 
11. They didn’t look after the children properly. 
12. Someone broke into his house and stole a lot of things. 
13. Ann gave the boy a ticket and led him to the theatre.
14. The police shouldn’t allow people to park there.
15. Susan felt sick because she ate four cream cakes.
16. She worked as a teacher 5 years ago.
17. Speaking English fluently is not easy.
18. James drives very carefully, so he hardly has any accident.
19. Without his treatment, the patient would have died.
20. Their teacher is making them study hard.
3.1.2 Phân tích thành phần các câu sau đây. 
1. The only reason the party was a success was that a famous film star attended.
2. Working as a volunteer gives her a chance to develop her interpersonal skills, promote friendship, and discover her own talent.
3. That the Moon appears considerably larger at the horizon than it does overhead is merely an optical illusion.
4. The repeated commercials on TV distract many viewers from watching their favourite films.
5. The first American immigrants, begining more than 20,000 years ago, were intercontinental wanderers. 
6. During the next 200 years, people from several European countries followed Columbus across the Atlantic Ocean to explore America and set up trading posts and colonies.
7. Population growth rates vary among regions and even among countries within the same region.
8. Such characters as fairies or witches in Walt Disney animated cartoons are purely imaginary. 
9. Ocean ecosystems, especially fragile ones like coral reefs, will also be affected by global warming. 
10. The carefully nurtured gardens with a wide variety of flowers and fruit trees have added elegance to this place and made it a major tourist attraction.
11. Those children who stay longer hours at school than at home tend to spend their formative years in the company of otherswith similar aims and interests.
12. Mobile phones and email allow us to stay in touch round the clock and late-night TV and the Internet tempt us away from our beds.
13. Until the invention of the electric light in 1879 our daily cycle of sleep used to depend on the hours of daylight.
14. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the largest radio telescope of the time was invented with a seventy-sixmeter telescope although larger telescopes have been made since then.
15. One of the most important functions of radio telescopes is their ability to allow scientists to track different space probes, the unmanned space missions in outer space.
3. ĐÁP ÁN PRACTISE EXERCISES
3.1. Phân tích thành phần các câu sau đây.
1. They built this church in 1973. 
 S V O A 
2. Do they teach English in your school?
 S V O A 
3. Nobody believes his story. 
 S V O 
4. People say he is very rich. 
 S V S V C
5. He made me clean all the plates last night.
 S V O C A
6. My parents are very proud of my good marks.
 S V C
7. You have made the wall dirty, pupils.
 S V O Co
8. My brother gave me a new mobile phone on my birthday. 
 S V O1 O2 A
9. Be quiet! my son is sleeping. 
 C S V
10. Peter stayed up late last night. 
 S V A A
11. They didn’t look after the children properly. 
 S V O A 
12. Someone broke into his house and stole a lot of things. 
 S V1 O1 V2 O2 
13. Ann gave the boy a ticket and led him to the theatre.
 S V1 O1 O2 V2 O2
14. The police shouldn’t allow people to park there.
 S V O
15. Susan felt sick because she ate four cream cakes.
 S V C S V O
16. She worked as a teacher 5 years ago.
 S V C A
17. Speaking English fluently is not easy.
 S V C
18. James drives very carefully, so he hardly has any accident.
 S V A S V C
19. Without his treatment, the patient would have died.
 C S V
20. Their teacher is making them study hard.
 S V O C
3.1.2 Phân tích thành phần các câu sau đây. 
1. The only reason the party was a success was that a famous film star attended.
 S V C
2. Working as a volunteer gives her a chance to develop her interpersonal skills, promote 
 S V O1 O2
friendship, and discover her own talent.
3. That the Moon appears considerably larger at the horizon than it does overhead is 
 S V
merely an optical illusion.
 C
4. The repeated commercials on TV distract many viewers from watching their favourite 
 S V O C
films.
5. The first American immigrants, begining more than 20,000 years ago, were 
 S C V 
intercontinental wanderers. 
 C
6. During the next 200 years, people from several European countries followed 
 A S V 
Columbus across the Atlantic Ocean to explore America and set up trading posts and 
 O A C 
colonies.
7. Population growth rates vary among regions and even among countries within the 
 S V A
same region.
8. Such characters as fairies or witches in Walt Disney animated cartoons are purely 
 S V C 
imaginary. 
9. Ocean ecosystems, especially fragile ones like coral reefs, will also be affected by 
 S C V
global warming. 
10. The carefully nurtured gardens with a wide variety of flowers and fruit trees have 
 S V1
added elegance to thi ... O- whom.
Nếu sau chỗ trống là 1 danh từ thì trước đó phải thiếu TTSH- whose.
- Áp dụng vào câu này ===> đáp án C ( trước chỗ trống là danh từ chỉ người và sau chỗ trống là 1 động từ)
2. Applications _____ in after 30th April will not be considered. 
A. which sent 	B. that is sent 	C. sent 	D. send
(Năm 2014- Khối A1)
Đáp án
Giải thích
C
- Đây là dạng câu hỏi quen thuộc liên quan đến dạng tỉnh lược của MĐQH. HS cần hiểu được kiến thức cơ bản và xác định đúng động từ chính của câu. Đọc kĩ câu đó xem đã có động từ chính chưa. Nếu có thì động từ còn lại thường là động từ phụ và nó sẽ không chia theo thì như bình thường.
Applications _____ in after 30th April will not be considered.
 Sm 	Vm
- Nhìn vào câu trên, ta thấy có động từ chính là will not be considered, nên động từ ở chỗ trống chỉ là động từ phụ. Lựa chọn A và D không hợp về nghĩa (vì đơn không thể tự gửi đi), Lựa chọn B chia đúng ở dạng bị động nhưng sai về động từ ( is--are). Suy ra, đáp án C là chính xác (dạng tỉnh lược của mệnh đề QH)
Applications (which are) sent in after 30th April will not be 
 Sm 	 Vm
considered.
3. They got lost in the forest, and ______ made matters worse was that night began to fall. 
A. that 	B. what 	C. which 	D. it
(Năm 2014- Khối D1)
Đáp án
Giải thích
B
- Đối với câu này đa số HS sẽ chọn đáp án D. Tuy nhiên, HS cần nhận thấy đằng sau chỗ trống có tới 2 động từ chính chia theo thì không thể được. Vì vậy, chắc chắn phải có một động từ sẽ làm động từ phụ và còn lại là động từ chính. 
Phân tích thành tố của câu:
They got lost in the forest, and ______ made matters worse was 
 S V1 A V2 V3
that night began to fall.
- Lựa chọn A và C không phù hợp vì trước các đại từ QH phải có danh từ. Đáp án đúng là B ( what= the things which) vậy V2 chỉ là động từ của MĐQH, còn V3 mới là động từ chính. 
4. In my opinion, ______ new technology who will finally decide which ideas take off. 
A. it is the development of 	B. that the development of 
C. it is the user of 	D. that the user of
(Năm 2014- Khối D1)
Đáp án
Giải thích
C
 Phân tích thành tố của câu:
 In my opinion, ______ new technology who will finally decide 
 S V
which ideas take off. 
- Sau khi phân tích, ta có thể loại bỏ ngay đáp án A và B vì 1 bên là đại từ chỉ người còn 1 bên là đại từ chỉ vật. Nếu chọn đáp án D thì mệnh đề đó sẽ thiếu động từ.
In my opinion, it is the user of new technology who will finally 
	S V C S V
decide which ideas take off. 
5. The Lake District, ______ was made a national park in 1951, attracts a large number of tourists every year. 
A. that 	B. where 	C. what 	D. which
(Năm 2013- Khối D1)
Đáp án
Giải thích
D
 Phân tích thành tố của câu:
The Lake District, ______ was made a national park in 1951, 
 S V C A
attracts a large number of tourists every year.
- Vì sau chỗ trống là động từ nên ta loại đáp án B trạng ngữ không đứng trước động từ, và loại bỏ đáp án A vì “that” không đứng sau dấu “,”. Xét về cấu trúc câu thì cả C và D đều đúng nhưng trong câu này ta phải dùng ĐTQH. 
6. The temperature ______ takes place varies widely from material to material. 
A. which they melt B. at which melting 	C. which melting 	D. at which they melt
(Năm 2011- Khối D1)
Đáp án
Giải thích
B
 Phân tích thành tố của câu:
The temperature ______ takes place varies widely from material 
 S V1 V2
to material.
- Trong câu này, HS phải nhận thấy có 2 động từ chia theo thì nên cần xác định đâu là động chính, đâu là động từ của MĐQH. Vậy, V2 là động từ chính và V1 là động từ của MĐQH. HS tiếp tục phân tích kĩ thành phần của MĐQH. Nhận thấy sau chỗ trống là V1 nên chỗ trống phải thiếu chủ ngữ. Từ đó, ta loại được đáp án A và D (thừa động từ). Nếu chọn đáp án C thì đại từ QH “which” sẽ trở thành tân ngữ. Mà V1 lại là nội động từ (intransitive verb) nên câu sẽ thành thừa tân ngữ. 
The temperature which melting takes place varies widely. 
 O S V 
(Nhiệt độ cái mà diễn ra sự tan chảy thì khác nhau... --> Không phù hợp.
The temperature at which melting takes place. 
 A S V 
(Nhiệt độ mà ở đó diễn ra sự tan chảy thì khác nhau...) --> Phù hợp.
4.3. Phần cloze test
1. The central mission of a library (37)______ to collect, organize, preserve, and provide access to knowledge and information. In fulfilling this mission, libraries preserve a valuable record of culture that can be passed down to (38)______ generations. Libraries are an essential link in this communication between the past, present, and future. Whether the cultural record is contained in books or in electronic formats, libraries ensure (39)______ the record is preserved and made available for later use. (Trích: đề thi THPT QG năm 2015- mã đề thi 194)
Question 37: A. are 	B. is 	C. have 	D. has
Question 38: A. succeeding 	B. succeed 	C. successful 	D. success
Question 39: A. what 	B. which 	C. who 	D. that
Câu
Giải thích
Đáp án
37
 Phân tích thành tố của câu:
The central mission of a library (37)______ to collect, organize, 
 S
preserve, and provide access to knowledge and information.
- Qua phân tích, ta thấy S của câu là danh từ số ít nên dễ dàng loại bỏ đáp án A và C. Những em HS không dịch kĩ câu mà chỉ dựa vào cấu trúc thì sẽ chọn đáp án C. Tuy nhiên, xét về nghĩa của câu thì đáp án C không phù hợp. 
B
38
Phân tích thành tố của câu:
In fulfilling this mission, libraries preserve a valuable record of 
 S V O
culture that can be passed down to (38)___Adj___ generations.
 N
A
39
 Phân tích thành tố của câu:
Whether the cultural record is contained in books or in electronic 
formats, libraries ensure (39)___O___ the record is preserved 
 S V
and made available for later use.
D
2. Post secondary institutions and private schools are corporations under U.S. law. They are approved to operate as non-profit, for-profit, or public corporations (41)______ education and training....
Some institutions are governed (47)______ under multi-campus arrangements. These include most local public schools (governed by school districts) and many state community college and university systems. Whether single- or multi-campus, institutional corporations (48)______ by boards of citizens, both alumni and non-alumni, who are ultimately responsible for all operations.
Question 41: A. provided 	B. provision 	C. provide 	D. providing
Question 47: A. collection 	B. collective 	C. collect 	D. collectively 
Question 48: A. controlled 	B. are controlling 	C. are controlled D. being controlled
(Trích: Đề thi năm 2014- Khối D1- mã đề thi 137)
Câu
Giải thích
Đáp án
41
 Phân tích thành tố của câu:
 They are approved to operate as non-profit, for-profit, orpublic 
 Sm Vm C
corporations (41)______ education and training.
- Ta thấy câu trên đã có S chính và V chính mà vế sau không có liên từ. Vì vậy, chỉ cần động từ phụ (của mệnh đề QH tỉnh lược). 
D
47
Phân tích thành tố của câu:
Some institutions are governed (47)___Adv___ under multi-
 S V
campus arrangements.
D
48
 Phân tích thành tố của câu:
Whether single- or multi-campus, institutional corporations 
 S
(48)___V___ by boards of citizens, ....
 O
C
5. BÀI TẬP ÁP DỤNG
Exercise 1. Mark the letter A, B C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions .
The letters written by the man was translating into Vietnamese by my sister.
 A B C D 
Jack London was a very famous novelist who works have been widely read.
 A B C D
The main reason for the decline of sharks are the demand for shark fins.
 A B C D 
Many bridges in New England were covered with wooden roofs to protect it from 
 A B C 
rain and snow.
 D 
Ducks are less susceptible to infection than others types of poultry.
 A B C D 
Deforestation is occurring most rapid in tropical regions of the world.
 A B C D 
Economics, with their widespread range of practical application, is one of great 
 A B C 
interest to government leaders throughout the world.
 D
Gunpowder, in some ways the most effective of all the explosive materials, were a 	 A B C D 
mixture of potassium nitrate, charcoal, and sulfur.
Some so-called heath foods are not so healthy; many are made with oils that rise 
 A B C D
cholesterol levels.
Finished the household chores, Mary decided to do some shopping.
 A B C D
Exercise 2. Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. 
1. _______ appears considerably larger at the horizon than it does overhead is merely an optical illusion.
A. That the Moon	B. The Moon which	 
C. When the Moon	D. The Moon
2. The letter _________ me of the theft hadn’t been signed.
A. to accuse	B. accused	C. accusing	D. that accuse
3. __________ migrate long distances is well documented.
A. That it is birds	B. That birds	
C. Birds that	D. It is that birds
4. ________ is not clear to researchers.
A. Why did dinosaurs become extinct 	B. Why dinosaurs became extinct
C. Did dinosaurs become extinct 	D. Dinosaurs became extinct
5. Jenny’s marriage has been arranged by her family. She is marrying a man _________.
A. that she hardly know	B. she hardly knows him
C. she hardly knows	D. whom she hardly know
6. _________ saying was so important that I asked everyone to stop talking and listen.
A. That the woman was	B. The woman was
C. What the woman was	D. What was the woman
7. _________ have at least four hours of hazardous materials response training is ordered by federal law. 
A. That all police officers 	B. All police officers must 
C. Though all police officers 	D. For all police officers 
8. My student practices ______ English with her friends every day.
A. speaking                  	B. to speak                    C. spoke                  D. speak
9. A partnership is an association of two or more individuals who ______ together to develop a business
A. work                      	B. working                   C. worked                D. they work
10. Since the flood the number of homeless people __________ dramatically. 
A. are increasing 	B. had increased 	 C. increase	 	 D. has increased
11. Yuri Gagarin was the first person ________into space. 
A. travelling	B. has travelled	C. to travel	D. travelled
12. Medical researchers are continually looking for ways to control,________ and cure diseases.
A. prevented	B. to prevent	C. prevent	D. preventing
13. ________ the fifth largest among the nine planets that make up our solar system is not surprising to me.
A. The Earth being 	B. The Earth is 	C. That the Earth is 	 D. Being the Earth 
14. The salary of a computer programmer is ________ a teacher.
A. as twice much as 	B. as much as twice of 
C. twice as higher as that	D. twice as high as that of
15. I haven’t got a passport, ____________ means I can’t leave my country.
A. which	B. that	C. this	D. it
ĐÁP ÁN BÀI TẬP ÁP DỤNG
Ex1. 
B
B
C
B
D
B
B
D
D
 A
Ex2. 
A
C
B
B
C
C
A
A
A
 D
 C
 C
 C
 D
 A
________THE END_______

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