Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm môn Anh văn 11

Sáng kiến kinh nghiệm môn Anh văn 11

3. MỘT SỐ DẠNG NGỮ PHÁP, TỪ VÀ CẤU TRÚC THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU.

3.1. MỘT SỐ DẠNG NGỮ PHÁP THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU

3.1.1. Viết lại câu thực hiện chuyển đổi từ Thì quá khứ đơn sang thì hiện tại hoàn thành và ngược lại

3.1.1.1. This is the first time S have/has + (ever) + Vpp/ Ved + (O)/ Adv

 S have/ has never Vpp Vpp/ Ved + (O)/ Adv before

Example:

This is the first time I have seen him.

 I have .

 I have never seen him before.

3.1.1.2. The last time + S + past simple was + time + ago/ in+ time

 S + have/ has + not + Ved/Vpp for/ since + time

Example:

The last time she visited us was two years ago.

 She hasn't

She hasn't visited us for two years.

Nếu không có ago mà có when + mệnh đề thì giữ nguyên mệnh đề chỉ đổi when thành since .

 

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I. Lý do chọn đề tài
3
II. Giải pháp thực tế giúp học sinh học Viết lại câu hiệu quả
4
1. Lập kế hoạch cho từng tiết dạy, buổi dạy:
4
2. Thực hiện tốt tiến trình dạy Viết lại câu
4
3.1.1. Past simple à present perfect 
4
3.1.2. Cách biến đổi Although à Despite/ In spite of 
6
3.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL(CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN)
7
3.1.4. PASSIVE VOICE
9
3.1.5. INVERSION
12
3.1.6. SUBJUNCTIVES (THỂ GIẢ ĐỊNH) 
16
3.1.7. TIME CLAUSES
17
3.1.8. CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
17
3.1.9 . SO ADJ/ADV THAT / SUCH AN/AN + ADJ+ N + THAT
19
3.1.10. COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE
20
3.1.11. REPORTED SPEECH
20
3.2. MỘT SỐ TỪ VÀ CẤU TRÚC THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU
24
3.2.1. Dạng chuyển đổi giữa động từ và danh từ chỉ người. 
24
3.2.1. go up/ rise/ increase /fall/ decrease/ decline/drop ßà N: rise/ increase/fall/ decrease/ decline
24
3.2.3 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SURPRISE
25
3.2.4 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ INTEND
25
3.2.5 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ DIFFICULT
25
3.2.6 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SUCCEED/ MANAGE/ FAIL
26
3.2.7 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ LIKELY
27
3.2.8 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ CHANCE/ OPPORTUNITY
27
3.2.9 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ POSSIBLE
27
3.2.10 CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ CHANGE
28
3.2.11. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SEEM
28
3.2.12. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ MIND
28
3.2.13. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ NECESSARY
29
3.2.14. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ EXPECT
29
3.2.15. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ PREVENT/ STOP
30
3.2.16. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ WORTH/ POINT/ USE/ WASTE
30
3.2.17. CẤU TRÚC VỚI TỪ SPEND/TAKE TIME
30
3.3. Bài tập áp dụng
32
3.4. Đáp Án
49
III. KẾT LUẬN
59
TÀI LIỆU THAM KHẢO
60
3. MỘT SỐ DẠNG NGỮ PHÁP, TỪ VÀ CẤU TRÚC THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU.
3.1. MỘT SỐ DẠNG NGỮ PHÁP THƯỜNG GẶP TRONG VIẾT LẠI CÂU
3.1.1. Viết lại câu thực hiện chuyển đổi từ Thì quá khứ đơn sang thì hiện tại hoàn thành và ngược lại 
3.1.1.1. This is the first time S have/has + (ever) + Vpp/ Ved + (O)/ Adv
à S have/ has never Vpp Vpp/ Ved + (O)/ Adv  before
Example:
This is the first time I have seen him.
à I have . 
à I have never seen him before. 
3.1.1.2. The last time + S + past simplewas + time + ago/ in+ time
à S + have/ has + not + Ved/Vppfor/ since + time
Example:
The last time she visited us was two years ago. 
à She hasn't  
She hasn't visited us for two years. 
Nếu không có ago mà có when + mệnh đề thì giữ nguyên mệnh đề chỉ đổi when thành since .
3.1.1.3. S + last + past simple  time + ago /in + time/ when + S + past simple
à S + have/ has + not + Ved/Vppfor/ since + time
Example:
I last saw him when I was a student. 
I have not..
à I haven't seen him since I was a student. 
Mẫu này có dạng :
Nếu không có ago mà có when + mệnh đề thì giữ nguyên mệnh đề chỉ đổi when thành since .
3.1.1.4. S + began/ started + V-ing/ To V . in+time/ time+ago/ when S + past simple
à S + have/has + Ved/3.. since/ for + time
 have/ has + been + V-ing. 	
I started / began studying English 3 years ago. 
I have.
à I have studied English for 3 years. / I have been studying English for 3 years.
Nếu không có ago mà có when + mệnh đề thì giữ nguyên mệnh đề chỉ đổi when thành since .
3.1.1.5. It’s + time + since + S + (last) + past simple
 à S + have/ has + (not) + Ved/Vpp for + time
Example:
It's ten years since I last met him. 
à I have not.
I haven't met him for ten years . 
3.1.1.6. When did + S + V0.?
à How long is it since + S + past simple..?
 have/ has + S + Ved/Vpp..?
Example
When did you buy it ? 
How long  
How long have you bought it? 
3.1.1.7. It/this/that is the + Adj (superlative) + S + have + ever + Ved/Vpp
 à	S + have/ has + never + Ved/Vpp + such (a/ an) + Adj + N + (before)
This is the most delicious cake I’ve ever tasted. 
à I have 
I have never tasted such a delicious cake before.
3.1.1.8. This is the first time + S + have + Ved/Vpp +  
à S+be + not used to + Ving/N
This is the first time I have seen so many people crying at the end of the movie.
I was not used..
I was not used to seeing so many people crying at the end of the movie.
3.1.2. Cách biến đổi Although/Even though/ Though à Despite/ In spite of 
Although/ though + Clause
Despite / in spite of + N/ Ving 
Các công thức biến đổi từ mệnh đề sang cụm từ như sau:
3.1.2.1. Although/ though + S + V, S’ + V’ (S=S’)
à Despite/ in spite of + Ving, S’ + V’.
Although Tom got up late, he got to school on time.
à Despite / in spite of .
Despite / in spite of getting up late, Tom got to school on time.
2.1.2.2. Although/ though + the+N + be + Adj, S’ + V’
à Despite/ in spite of + the adj + N, S’ + V’.
Although the rain was heavy, they enjoyed their game.
Despite/ in spite of 
Despite / in spite of the heavy rain, they enjoyed their game.
3.1.2.3. Although/ though + personal Pronoun + be + Adj, S’ + V’
à Despite/ in spite of + possessive adjective + N, S’ + V’.
Although He was sick,........
=> Despite / in spite of his sickness,.......
3.1.2.4. Although/ though + personal Pronoun + V + adv, S’ + V’
à Despite/ in spite of + possessive adjective + adj+N, S’ + V’.
Although He behaved impolitely,.....
=> Despite / in spite of his impolite behavior ,.........
3.1.2.5. Although/ though + there be+(a/an)N , S’ + V’
à Despite/ in spite of + a/an + N, S’ + V’.
Although there was an accident ,.....
=> Despite / in spite of an accident,......
3.1.2.6. Although/ though + it + be + Adj (weather), S’ + V’
à Despite/ in spite of + the adj + N(weather), S’ + V’.
Although it was rainy, .....
=> Despite / in spite of the rain, .
Các tính từ và danh từ thường gặp trong mẫu này là:
Foggy => fog  ( sương mù  )
Snowy => snow (tuyết)
Rainy => rain (mưa)
Stormy => storm ( bão)
3.1.2.7 Phương pháp cuối cùng cũng là phương pháp dễ nhất : thêm the fact that trước mệnh đề.
Phương pháp này áp dụng được cho mọi câu mà khôgn cần phân tích xem nó thuộc mẫu này, tuy nhiên phương pháp này không được khuyến khích sử dụng vì suy cho cùng những biến đổi trên đây  là rèn luyện cho các em cách sử dụng các cấu trúc câu, do đó nếu câu nào cũng thêm the fact that rồi viết lại hết thì các em sẽ không nâng cao được trình độ. Phương pháp này chỉ áp dụng khi gặp câu quá phức tạp mà không có cách nào biến đổi. Một trường hợp khác mà các em có thể sử dụng nữa là : trong lúc đi thi gặp câu khó mà mình quên cách biển đổi .
Although he behaved impolitely,................................................
à Despite / in spite of the fact that he behaved impolitely,.............................................
3.1.2.8. Although/ though + S + V + Adj /adv, S’ + V’
à However+ adj/adv +S+V.., S’ + V’.
Driving at that spees is dangerous although you are an experienced driver or not. 
However .................................................................................................................
However experinced a driver you are// you are as a driver, driving at that speed is dangerous. 
3.1.2.9. Although/ though + S + V + Adj /adv, S’ + V’
à adj/adv +as/though+S+V.., S’ + V’
I don’t really like her, even though I admire her achievements.
→Much ....................................
→Much as I admire her achievements, I don’t really like her.
3.1.3. THE CONDITIONAL(CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN)
3.1.3.1. Conditional type 1
a. Nếu câu đề là: (Don’t )V.or S will/can(not) infinitive :
à If S1 present simple, S2 will/can(not) infinitive
Example:
1. Stop talking or you won’t understand the lesson.
→ If ......
If you don’t stop talking, you won’t understand the lesson.
2. Don’t be impatient or you will make mistakes.
à If..
If you are impatient, you will make mistakes.
b. S1 will/can infinitive; S2 will/can(not) infinitive :
à If S1 present simple, S2 will/can(not) infinitive
Example: He will pay me tonight; I will have enough money to buy a car.
à If..
If he pays me tonight, I will have enough money to buy a car.
c. Use UNLESS à IF NOT
EX: 	
1. If you do not study hard, you will fail the exam. 
 Unless you study hard, you will fail the exam
2. If you do not like this one, I’ll bring you another 
Unless..
d. If S1 present simple, S2 will/can (not) infinitive
à Provided that/ As long as/ So long as S1 present simple, S2 will/can (not) infinitive
1. If we try hard, we can finish it in a week.
Provided 
Provided that we try hard, we can finish it in a week.
2. Provided your hand writing is legible the examiner will accept your answer.
As long as the examiner ..
So long as the examiner .
So long as the examiners can read your handwriting, they will accept your answer.
e. If S1 present simple, S2 will/can (not) infinitive
à Should S infinitive, S2 will/ can(not) infinitive
Example:
If you find it necessary, you can contact me on this number.
→Should ..
→Should you find it necessary, you can contact me on this number.
3.1.3.2. Conditional type 2
a. S1 present simple/could/would infinnitive, because S2 present simple
è If S1 past simple, S2 could/would infinitive
Nếu trong câu có because, so (= that’s why) thì phải bỏ (đặt if vào chổ because , còn so (= that’s why) thì ngược lại)
Peter is fat because he eats so many chips. 
→If .....
If Peter did not eat so many chips, he would not be fat.
b. S1 + present simple, so S2 could/ would (not)/ present simple
è If S1 past simple, S2 could/would (not) infinitive
They don't go to the cinema, so they don't know anything about new movies and actors.
If 
If they knew something about new movies and actors, they would go to the cinema.
c. If S1 past simple, S2 could/would (not) infinitive
à Were S1 (+ to V) O.., S2 could/would (not) infinitive
The only thing that makes this job worthwhile is the money.
→Were ..
→Were it not for the money, the job wouldn’t be worthwhile.
3.1.3.3. Conditional type 3
a. S1 + past simple, so S2 could/ would (not)/ past simple
è If S1 had Vpp, S2 could/would have Vpp
My husband didn’t leave the keys, so I couldn’t pick him up at the station.
If my husban.
b. S1 past simple/could/would infinnitive, because S2 past simple/ past perfect
è If S1 had Vpp, S2 could/would have Vpp
We got lost in the jungle because we didn't have a map.
If we had........................................................................................................ 
c. - If S1 had Vpp, S2 could/would have Vpp
 - S1 past simple/could/would infinnitive, because S2 past simple/ past perfect.
 - It was N that + past simple+..
à But for + N/Ving,
àHad S (not) Vpp/Ved.., ..
Example
It was his incompetence that led to their capture.
à If .
Had it
But for.
à If it had not been for his incompetence, they would not have been captured.
d. Without + Ving/ N, S will/ would/ could + ..
àIf conditional type 2/ type 3
If he had not helped, I would not have been able to find my way. 
Without..
Without his help, I would not have been able to find my way.
3.1.4. PASSIVE VOICE
3.1.4. 1. Somebody + want/ like/expect + someone to do something
Somebody + want /like/expect + something + to be done
EX:
Our teacher wants us to prepare our lessons carefully.
Our teacher wants our lessons to be prepar ... asked John how many people there were in his family
3. Tam’s friend asked him how long he would stay in England
4. She asked her mom what time the film began
5. The teacher asked Lien What her hobby was
6. His friend asked him how he went to the airport.
7. Ann asked her mother how much that dress cost
8. Mary asked David how often he washed his clothes
9. Phong asked Thu When his father left Vietnam for the USA.
10. The librarian asked my teacher how many books the students needed
15 Rewrite the sentences.
1. She told me if she had any money she'd buy me a drink
2. He said if he caught the plane he would be home by five
3. My mother said that I should stay if I feel unwell
4 Anne asked Jane what she would do she were having a problem with grammar
5. Matthew said if he could have contacted me If she'd had my mobile yesterday
6. She advised me to stop smoking
7. He wondered what they would call her if the baby was a girl
8. She said if she did not practice her English she wouldn’t get any better
9. He said he'd have been in bad trouble if Jane hadn't helped him 
10. She asked what she should do if the door was clocked
16 Rewrite the sentences.
He promised to wait for me
Tom begged John to turn off the TV
His mother told him to open the window
He told me to shut the door after me
The captain ordered them to wait their till he came back
He introduced Miss White to Mr. Brown
He asked me not to come back before one o’clock.
My mother told us to lock the door
I warned Peter not to touch that switch
Rosy persuaded John to come and have dinner with them
17 Rewrite the sentences.
Key
She suggested going for a swim then
He admitted being wrong
He denied saying that
Jane regrets not having told the truth
The boy apologized for not finishing the assignment
The man accused the boy of taking his bag
She insisted on sitting for the test
She dreamt of becoming a doctor
His mother prevented me from using the mobile phone
She thanked him for visiting her.
18 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
She is a good cook
My aunt is a very good English teacher / very good teacher of English
He is a very slow cyclist.
He is a careful typist.
These children can run quickly.
My father is a very good soccer player.
I am a very bad driver.
She is a good singer. 
He is a very hard worker.
Tom is a very fast swimmer.
19 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
There has been a rise in the number of redundancies this year.
There has been a gradual decrease/decline/fall in the number of people out of work.
An increased number of travellers is being stopped by customs officials this week.
There has been little demand for cars this month.
There has been a steady decline in the number of accidents since the speed limit was imposed.
There have been very few sightings of the Yeti at this altitude.
There have been no changes to the team since last Saturday’s match.
There has been a sharp decline in birth race recently
There has been such a vociferous protest that the committee has had to reconsider.
This year the rate of unemployment has increased slightly slightly less than it did in previous years.
20 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
When a policeman appeared at the door, I was surprised
We were surprised that you decided to get married before finishing your degree
It came as no surprise that he succeeded.
It came as no surprise to me that Karen had changed her job.
To everyone’s surprise, Geoff left the party early
It came as a surprise to me that Martin hadn't married Jane. 
Pedro's promotion came as a surprise to us. 
His refusal to help surprised us
To our surprise, Long left the room early.
I hadn’t expected him to be so easy to talk to.
21 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
I have no intention of telling you my plan.
I have no intention of apologising to either of them.
I have no intention of replying to that rude letter from Edward.
I never had any intention of going to the wedding
Even though profits are down, the company has no intention of making 
Rick has no intention of seeing that film again.
22 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
The fox tried in vain to reach the grapes.
Unfortunately all his efforts came to nothing.
Did you managed to pass the exam?
The firemen managed to put the fire out after fighting it for 12 hours
The harder you work, the more successful you are / will be.
The engine failure is caused by a badly fitted part
Failure to obey the regulations may cause your disqualification.
The more qualifications you are able to / can amass, the more successful you become / are in the academic field. , the more success you can / will make / have in the academic field.
Had it not been for the attendance of a famous film star the party wouldn’t have been a success.( would have been a failure)
Never had she expected she was so successful. // such success.
23 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
My friends are unlikely to have received my letter yet.
There is little likehood of his being convicted of the offence.
She has a good chance of success as an actress.
He is hardly likely to have taken poison. 
It is unlikely that this old car will last for more than three years.
24 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
It’s most difficult for you to get the chances.
The chances are that all of you will be able to enter college. 
It’s too wonderful an opportunity for us to miss.
I really regret to have missed the boat to get the promotion.
There is very little chance of Ruth being promoted this year.
He asked himself what were the chances of him getting top marks again
There is a chance that , I will get the job I’ve applied for .
Mark has little chance of getting the promotion. 
You should take a camera with you in case you happen to come across some interesting 
The company might have given him a second chance if he had admitted his mistake.
25 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
Working in that condition was impossible
We were impossible to have a picnic because of the heavy rain
It’s impossible to grow roses in such poor ground
He found it difficult to study at home.
That puzzle could not have been solved, even by a genius
He couldn’t possibly have taken the money by mistake. 
She couldn’t possibly have been in London on the 26th.
Would it be possible for me to talk to someone about my problem?
It is impossible for us to study in all this noise.
I am afraid I can’t pay a visit to that place again.
26 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
There have been no changes to the team since last Saturday’s match.
This government has undergone a complete change in its taxation policy since 
Critics are hoping the new director can breathe new life into 
If you had stuck to our original agreement, everything would have been fine.
He has made a change of heart on the house.
Provided there is no change in the weather overnight, the match will go.
27 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
I seem to have met you in Cardiff in 1991
He doesn’t seem to see what you mean
He seems to have done Ph.D in the US in 1979
Her playing seems to have developed amazingly in the past year.
When I saw her last week she did not look happy at all.
I had/got the impression that he was worried about something.
It looked though the room had been unoccupied for weeks.
He seems to have forgotten about the meeting again.
It seems that agricultural production accounts for (just/only) one percent of the total land. 
She seems to be enjoying her new job a great deal.
28 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
I don’t mind looking after the baby for you
I don’t mind helping you with your homework.
I haven’t made up my mind whether to move or not.
Do you have any objection to me coming over to see you later?
Sandra said that she didn’t mind working late
She didn’t let him smoke in her room.
Could you turn the radion down?
Do you mind helping me to put the chairs away.
Would you mind not interrupting me all the time?
It had never crossed my mind that I would win a prize.
29 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
It is very necessary for him to be to blamed for his mistakes.
Do I have to arrive so early?
You don’t need to shout
You needn’t go to so much trouble on my behalf
It wasn’t necessary to remind him about it.
30 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
The service at the hotel did not come up to my expectations.
The operation left Simon feel weaker than he (had) expected.
Never had she expected she was so successful. // such success.
His arrival took us completely by surprise.
His appearance was beyond our expectation.
The concert failed to come/live up to his expectations.
She came up to their expectations.
The company is expected to get more profit this year.
Everyone was taken by surprise when John did so well in his exams.
They certainly lived up to our expectation.
31 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
Brushing your teeth regularly can prevent tooth decay.
Jo’s accident prevented him from taking part in the race.
Martin’s poor health doesn’t prevent/stop him from enjoying life.
There is nothing I wouldn’t do to prevent him from going there. 
The heavy rain prevented Susan from getting to the date. 
They put the fence there so you can't enter the grounds of the house.
I wanted to prevent all my good work from being wasted.
Despite the fact that he was disabled, he sailed/managed to sail around the world.
I was prevented from going to work by transport strike.
The noise of the traffic prevented him from sleeping
32 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
Repairing that old typewriter is pointless.
That old typewritter is not worth having that old typewriter repaired.
There’s no need to make her change her mind.
It isn’t worth asking George to help.
It is a waste of time trying to save endangered species.
In your opinion, is this antique vase worth buying?
It is a waste of time phoning Caroline – she’s away.
There’s no point (in) (you/your) trying to get Tim to lend you his car/to borrow Tim’s car.
We needn't have taken part in the protest, as the council had already made its decision.
It’s no use escaping	
33 Rewrite the sentences starting with the word given.
I spend an hour getting to London
It is a six hour drive from here to London.
It takes me twenty minutes to walk to school everyday.
It took her two days to tidy her room last week
It used to take them half an hour to go to school
It takes us 30 minutes to review our lesson before class
He spent twelve hours flying from Hanoi to London
It takes three hours to drive from Hanoi to Namdinh. 
We spent five hours getting to London
It took him 2 hours to write the letter.
________THE END________

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