Thiết kế bài dạy môn Tiếng Anh 11 - The Infinitive

Thiết kế bài dạy môn Tiếng Anh 11 - The Infinitive

I. The to – infinitive :

1.The to - infinitive can be used as subject and subject complement

a. As subject :

- To save money now seems impossible .

- To turn down the invitation seems rude .

- To learn well is our task.

b. As a subject complement after be

- The main thing is not to panic.

- The idea was to surprise everybody.

- My dream is to become a doctor .

2.A to infinitive clause can express purpose , duty and result

- To get a good seat , you need to arrive early .

- She has gone out to do some shopping .

- He grew up to be a handsome young man.

3.An infinitive clause can also express a comment on the whole sentence

- To be frank, you didn’t make a very good impression.

- I’m a bit tired of sightseeing , to tell you the truth.

 

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The Infinitive
I. The to – infinitive :
1.The to - infinitive can be used as subject and subject complement 
a. As subject :
- To save money now seems impossible .
- To turn down the invitation seems rude .
- To learn well is our task.
b. As a subject complement after be 
- The main thing is not to panic.
- The idea was to surprise everybody.
- My dream is to become a doctor .
2.A to infinitive clause can express purpose , duty and result
- To get a good seat , you need to arrive early .
- She has gone out to do some shopping .
- He grew up to be a handsome young man.
3.An infinitive clause can also express a comment on the whole sentence
- To be frank, you didn’t make a very good impression. 
- I’m a bit tired of sightseeing , to tell you the truth.
4.A to infinitive can be used after some verbs (object of a verb)
- I plan to visit Hanoi next week.
- I don’t want to see you again.
- We expect to have completed the work by Saturday.
Verb + to - infinitive
afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, care, claim, consent, choose , decide, demand, expect, fail, forget, hesitate , hope, learn, manage, mean, offer, omit, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, seem, seek,swear ,struggle, tend, threaten, volunteer , train , want , wait,wish 
5.We can use seem , appear , happen, come , grow , turn out , prove with a to infinitive.
- The plan seemed to be losing height.
- We happened to meet in the street.( = met by chance)
6.Some verbs can take an object and a to infinitive 
advise, allow, ask, beg(van xin),ban(cấm), cause, challenge, convince(thuyết phục), dare(dám), enable, encourage(khuyến khích), expect, force,forbit, hire ,invite, mean, need, love , like ,oblige ,order, permit, persuade, remind, recommmend, request , teach, tell, tempt , trouble , urge(thúc dục),want, warn, wish ,would like,
Verb + O + to - infinitive
-I expected you to meet me at the airport.
- We ask the teacher not to give us any homework.
- The doctor told me to stay in bed. 
7. Adjective + to – infinitive(object of an adjective )
a.It + lingking verb + adjective + to – infinitive clause
- It’s difficult to Marvellous , terrific , wonderful,perfect, great,good, nice, pleasant, lovely, terrible,awful, dreadful, horrible
Interesting , exciting , depressing , confusing,embarrassing, amusing
Easy , difficult, hard , convenient , possible , impossible, safe, dangerous , cheap, expensive 
Necessary , vital,essential , important, advisable , better/best 
Usual, normal , common , rare 
Strange , odd, incredible , natural , understandable
Good , nice , kind , helpful , mean , generous, clever, intelligent , sensible , right , silly , stupid , foolish , careless , wrong , polite , rude
solve the problem.
b.The pattern : The letter was easy to write (the letter as the object of to write )
- The problem is difficult to solve.
c.The pattern : It was an easy letter to write 
- It’s a difficult problem to solve .
8.Patterns with too , enough
- The coffee was too hot to drink .
- This rucksack isn’t big enough to get everything in .
- The light wasn’t shining brightly enough for anyone to notice it.
9.The pattern: I was happy to write the letter ( Here the subject of the main clause is a person )
- We were sorry to hear your bad news.
- I was lucky to win the game.
10. The pattern : It is likely to happen
- The peace talks are likely to last several weeks.
- The party is sure to be a great success.
11.Noun phrase + to –infinitive 
a.The pattern : The need to write 
- Is there any need to write a letter ?
- Everyone laughed at his attempt to impress the girl. 
- Our decision to stay at home was the right one.
- We shall never lose a chance to succeed.
Ability decision need reluctance 
Agreement demand offer request 
Ambition desire opportunity scheme(kế hoạch) 
Anxiety determination plan time 
Arrangerment eagerness preparations willingness 
Attempt effort promise wish
Chance failure proposal
Choice intention refusal
b.The pattern : letters to write
- I’ve got some letters to write.
- Take something to read on the train.
- The doctor had a number of patients to see.
12. Question word + to-infinitive
- I just don’t know what to say.
- She wasn’t sure how much to tip the porter.
- Have you any idea how to open this packet ?
- No one told us where to meet.
- I’m worried about what to wear. 
13. After noun and indefinite pronouns something , anything , somewhere to express purpose 
- I need the money to pay the phone bill.
- We need something to eat.
- We have few jobs to do.
14.After noun phrase with enough , too much , many , little , few , plenty
- We’ve got plenty of time to do homework .
- There’s too much work for you to finish today.
II.The bare infinitive ( The infinitive without to)
1.After a modal verb and auxiliary : can ,may , must , shall, should, ought to , had better , would rather ...
- I must speak to the manager.
- You had better not be late.
- You should be more careful.
- They must be having a party next door.
2.Verb+ object + bare infinitive
Make , let , dare , help , have can take object + bare infinitive
He always makes me smile.
The teacher let us go home early.
I’ll have the porter bring up your luggage.
3.After feel , hear , see , watch , smeell , listen , notice  + object
- I saw her enter the room, unlock a drawer , take out a document, photograph it and put it back.
- I heard someone knock on the door.
Compare :
Eg1: I saw an old man walk across the street. ( whole action)
Eg2 : I saw him playing video games ( part of the action)
Attention: In a passive form , make , see , hear , help , know are used with the to – infinitive
- He was seen to enter the office.

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